‘The significance of the Cape trade route to economic activity in the Cape Colony: a medium-term business cycle analysis’, European Review of Economic History, 14 (2010), pp. At its peak in 1987, the UDF had some 700 affiliates and about 3,000,000 members. The territory of the South African Republic became known after this war as the Transvaal Colony.. different black tribes in south africa. Originally, South Africa was discovered by the Portuguese in 1488. An academic study conducted in 2006, found that South Africans showed levels of xenophobia greater than anywhere else in the world.  Two dozen conspirators including senior South African Army officers were arrested on charges of treason and murder, after a bomb explosion in Soweto. , Public opinion in South Africa split along racial and ethnic lines. When the war ended, Smuts represented South Africa in San Francisco at the drafting of the United Nations Charter in May 1945. Eventually, van Riebeeck and the VOC began to make indentured servants out of the Khoikhoi and the San. A local trader Dick King and his servant Ndongeni, who later became folk heroes, were able to escape the blockade and ride to Grahamstown, a distance of 600 km (372.82 miles) in 14 days to raise British reinforcements. About three thousand Zulu warriors died in the clash known historically as the Battle of Blood River..  The Truth and Reconciliation Commission noted in 2003 that, despite the ANC's stated policy of attacking only military and police targets, "the majority of casualties of MK operations were civilians. He then set out on a massive programme of expansion, killing or enslaving those who resisted in the territories he conquered.  On 11 March 1994, several hundred AWB members formed part of an armed right-wing force that invaded the nominally independent "homeland" territory of Bophuthatswana, in a failed attempt to prop up its unpopular, conservative leader Chief Lucas Mangope. , Migrant labour remained a fundamental aspect of the South African mining industry, which employed half a million mostly black miners. In the eastern part of what is today South Africa, in the region named Natalia by the Boer trekkers, the latter negotiated an agreement with Zulu King Dingane kaSenzangakhona allowing the Boers to settle in part of the then Zulu kingdom. Opening Education in Central Africa: Jacques Murinda Introduces OLE Rwanda, The African Virtual University Is Training Teachers Across Africa, Dr. Bakary Diallo of the African Virtual University on Improving Education Accessibility in Africa, Gap Year Options for Almost-Graduates: AVIVA, Outlook Bleak for South African Graduates. Anthony Egan, Review of "The Hidden Thread: Russia and South Africa in the Soviet Era" by Irina Filatova & Apollon Davidson, Phyllis Johnson & David Martin, Apartheid Terrorism: The destabilisation report, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989, p.122, UN General Assembly, res n° 2154 (XXI), 17 November 1966.  In 1805, the British inherited the Cape as a prize during the Napoleonic Wars, again seizing the Cape from the French controlled Kingdom of Holland which had replaced the Batavian Republic. Source(s): https://shorte.im/a9ShS. "Disease and Society: VOC Cape Town, Its People, and the Smallpox Epidemics of 1713, 1755, and 1767," Kleio 27. Natalia was a short-lived Boer republic established in 1839 by Boer Voortrekkers emigrating from the Cape Colony. Both Prime Minister Louis Botha and Defence Minister Jan Smuts were former Second Boer War generals who had previously fought against the British, but they now became active and respected members of the Imperial War Cabinet. In 1836, when Boer Voortrekkers (pioneers) arrived in the northwestern part of present-day South Africa, they came into conflict with a Ndebele sub-group that the settlers named "Matabele", under chief Mzilikazi. By 1860, with slavery having been abolished in 1834, and after the annexation of Natal as a British colony in 1843, the British colonialists in Natal (now kwaZulu-Natal) turned to India to resolve a labour shortage. On 28 May 1941, Smuts was appointed a Field Marshal of the British Army, becoming the first South African to hold that rank. These same settlers would later fight against San, Khoisan, Bantu, and Xhosa groups as well. Portugal seems to be the only country who began their colonization of Angola and Mozambique quite early (16th century). Their South African National Party, later known as the South African Party or SAP, followed a generally pro-British, white-unity line. Starting from the mid-1800s, the Cape of Good Hope, which was then the largest state in southern Africa, began moving towards greater independence from Britain.  War broke out again in 1865.  By the time of their defeat and expulsion from the Cape Peninsula and surrounding districts, the Khoikhoi population was decimated by a smallpox epidemic introduced by Dutch sailors against which the Khoikhoi had no natural resistance or indigenous medicines.. The same legislation applied also to South West Africa over which South Africa had continued after World War I to exercise a disputed League of Nations mandate. English and Dutch became the two official languages in 1925.. 0 0. The major European colonizers in SEA included Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, Britain, and France. The British then seized the Cape in 1795 to prevent it from falling into French hands. While the Dutch were not in Africa as long as some colonial powers, they were amongst the first to establish a permanent European presence there. Subsequent to the killing of the Retief party, the Boers defended themselves against a Zulu attack, at the Ncome River on 16 December 1838. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. As punishment to the Basotho, the governor and commander-in-chief of the Cape Colony, Sir George Cathcart, deployed troops to the Mohokare River; Moshoeshoe was ordered to pay a fine. In late October, Boer commandos supported by local Kgatla tribal collaborators laid siege to the caves. By 1869, diamonds were found at some distance from any stream or river, in hard rock called blue ground, later called kimberlite, after the mining town of Kimberley where the diamond diggings were concentrated. Others said it was not relevant to the struggle for their rights. Elements of the South African Army refused to fight against the Germans and along with other opponents of the government; they rose in an open revolt known as the Maritz Rebellion. The prisoners were mainly members of the Pan Africanist Congress and United Democratic Front. He eventually surrendered to a combined deputation of Boer and British forces on 2 December 1879. Still, while the Dutch government was essentially kicked out of Africa, the legacy of colonialism continues to afflict the region. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Whereas the San were hunter-gathers, the Khoikhoi were pastoral herders. , In 1825, a faction of the Griqua people was induced by Dr John Philip, superintendent of the London Missionary Society in Southern Africa, to relocate to a place called Philippolis, a mission station for the San, several hundred miles southeast of Griqualand. Today, descendants of the Boers are commonly referred to as Afrikaners. A significant number of the offspring from the white and slave unions were absorbed into the local proto-Afrikaans speaking white population. The fact that the Dutch colonized this corner of Africa had a big significance on the world. Why did the Boers move to South Africa?  The discovery of gold in February 1886 at a farm called Langlaagte on the Witwatersrand in particular precipitated a gold rush by prospectors and fortune seekers from all over the world. As Prof. Ch. The Dutch and French tried and even managed to claim parts of South America. , By 2014, around 47% of (mostly black) South Africans continued to live in poverty, making it one of the most unequal countries in the world. The trek of the Griquas to escape the influence of the Cape Colony has been described as "one of the great epics of the 19th century. When the war began, Bank of England officials worked with the government of South Africa to block any gold shipments to Germany, and force the mine owners to sell only to the British Treasury, at prices set by the Treasury. Within a few decades, the British outlawed the international slave trade and the market collapsed, and the Dutch started using the Gold Coast to recruit African soldiers to fight in their army in the Indian Ocean region. In July 1916, four battalions of the South African Brigade attached to the 9th Scottish Division suffered 766 fatalities among the approximately 3,150 South African soldiers who fought in the Battle of Delville Wood, France,. The British suffragette Emily Hobhouse visited British concentration camps in South Africa and produced a report condemning the appalling conditions there. The role of the Boer settlers was replaced by subsidised British immigrants of whom 5,000 arrived between 1849 and 1851.. The racially mixed genealogical origins of many so-called "white" South Africans have been traced to interracial unions at the Cape between the European occupying population and imported Asian and African slaves, the indigenous Khoi and San, and their vari-hued offspring. The Dutch colonised the Cape to establish a way-station on their route to the lucrative trade in India. Of course, the Cape was not empty when the Dutch arrived. The first was formed by Hermann Eckstein in 1887, eventually becoming Rand Mines. Finally, the colony was handed over to Britain in the mid-19th century. Its consequent status as a trading hub made it a rather tasty catch. BP Willan, "The South African Native Labour Contingent, 1916–1918", Bill Nasson, "A Great Divide: Popular Responses to the Great War in South Africa,", Russell Ally, "War and gold—the Bank of England, the London gold market and South Africa's gold, 1914–19,", Susan Mathieson and David Atwell, "Between Ethnicity and Nationhood: Shaka Day and the Struggle over Zuluness in post-Apartheid South Africa" in, Mark Swilling & Mark Phillips, "State power in the 1980s: from total strategy to counter revolutionary warfare", in Jacklyn Cock & Laurie Nathan (eds). The flag of Republic of South Africa was adopted on 27 April 1994.  The attacks were then falsely attributed by the government to "black-on-black" or factional violence within the communities.  These states, forming a regional alliance of southern African states, were named collectively as the Frontline States: Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and, from 1980, Zimbabwe. Germany was the primary supplier of weapons to the Boers during the subsequent Anglo-Boer war. This facilitated purchases of munitions and food in the United States and neutral countries.  The anti-semitic Boerenasie (Boer Nation) and other similar groups soon joined them. Following Lord Carnarvon's successful introduction of federation in Canada, it was thought that similar political effort, coupled with military campaigns, might succeed with the African kingdoms, tribal areas and Boer republics in South Africa. In 1896, the German Kaiser Kaiser Wilhelm had enraged Britain by sending congratulations to Boer republican leader Paul Kruger after Kruger's commandos captured a column of British South Africa Company soldiers engaged in an armed incursion and abortive insurrection, known historically as the Jameson Raid, into Boer territory. 's' : ''}}.  On 21 June 1942 nearly 10,000 South African soldiers, representing one-third of the entire South African force in the field, were taken prisoner by German Field Marshal Rommel's forces in the fall of Tobruk, Libya.  The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) found that competition over jobs, business opportunities, public services and housing gave rise to tension among refugees, asylum seekers, migrants and host communities, identified as a main cause of the xenophobic violence. To this end, a small VOC expedition under the command of Jan van Riebeeck reached Table Bay on 6 April 1652. His impis (warrior regiments) were rigorously disciplined: failure in battle meant death.. Over the next 50 years, 150,000 more indentured Indian servants and labourers arrived, as well as numerous free "passenger Indians," building the base for what would become the largest Indian community outside India. " They were joined on their long journey by a number of San and Khoikhoi aboriginals, local African tribesmen, and also some white renegades. The first modern humans are believed to have inhabited South Africa more than 100,000 years ago. They saw this as the best way to come to terms with the fact of a white Afrikaner majority, as well as to promote their larger strategic interests in the area. , During World War II, South Africa's ports and harbours, such as at Cape Town, Durban, and Simon's Town, were important strategic assets to the British Royal Navy. why did the dutch colonized south africa. , On 16 December 1966, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2202 A (XXI) identified apartheid as a "crime against humanity". South Africa was pretty much a necessary stop along the way.  The widening search for gold and other resources were financed by the wealth produced and the practical experience gained at Kimberley. More than a decade later 36,000 Cuban troops were deployed throughout the country helping providing support for MPLA's fight with UNITA. The VOC had a big impact on South Africa, but they weren't the only Dutch trading company. Following in Dart's footsteps Robert Broom discovered a new much more robust hominid in 1938 Paranthropus robustus at Kromdraai, and in 1947 uncovered several more examples of Australopithecus africanus at Sterkfontein. Renewed tensions between Britain and the Boers peaked in 1899 when the British demanded voting rights for the 60,000 foreign whites on the Witwatersrand. 469–503.  Revenue accruing to the Cape Colony from the Kimberley diamond diggings enabled the Cape Colony to be granted responsible government status in 1872, since it was no longer dependent on the British Treasury and hence allowing it to be fully self-governing in similar fashion to the federation of Canada, New Zealand and some of the Australian states. To secure control of the region, the Dutch settlers fought a series of campaigns against the Khoikhoi, driving them away from the coast. , The apartheid government had declared a moratorium on foreign debt repayments in the mid-1980s, when it declared a state of emergency in the face of escalating civil unrest. Truth and Reconciliation Commission (1998), Findings in respect of the state and its allies: findings 82, 100 c, 100 f, 101, 102 pp. That's a legacy that has echoed throughout Africa.  Simon van der Stel, the first Governor of the Dutch settlement, famous for his development of the lucrative South African wine industry, was himself of mixed race-origin. However, there was competition for land, and this tension led to skirmishes in the form of cattle raids from 1779. In the 14th and 15th century, Portuguese explorers traveled down the west African Coast, detailing and mapping the coastline and in 1488 they rounded the Cape of Good Hope. Finding and extracting the deposits far below the ground called for the capital and engineering skills that would soon result in the deep-level mines of the Witwatersrand producing a quarter of the world's gold, with the "instant city" of Johannesburg arising astride the main Witwatersrand gold reef. who were the first group of people to take over the bantus? , General Jan Smuts was the only important non-British general whose advice was constantly sought by Britain's war-time Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Smuts also signed the Paris Peace Treaty, resolving the peace in Europe, thus becoming the only signatory of both the treaty ending the First World War, and that which ended the Second..  The AWB leader Eugène Terre'Blanche was murdered by farm workers on 3 April 2010. In 2007, less than half the protests were associated with some form of violence, compared with 2014, when almost 80% of protests involved violence on the part of the participants or the authorities. On 23 October 1984 the UN Security Council endorsed this formal determination. South Africa was pretty much a necessary stop along the way. , Although no formally surveyed boundaries existed, Griqua leader Nicolaas Waterboer claimed the diamond fields were situated on land belonging to the Griquas. Around 1800, they started crossing the northern frontier formed by the Orange River, arriving ultimately in an uninhabited area, which they named Griqualand. 1972. Pearson Longman. The Dutch presence in the Gold Coast, or other parts of the African coastline where the Dutch ventured, would never be as substantial as it was in Cape Town. , In 1818, Nguni tribes in Zululand created a militaristic kingdom between the Tugela River and Pongola River, under the driving force of Shaka kaSenzangakhona, son of the chief of the Zulu clan. , The VOC had settled at the Cape in order to supply their trading ships. Modern human settlement occurred around 125,000 years ago in the Middle Stone Age, as shown by archaeological discoveries at Klasies River Caves. The majority of burghers had Dutch ancestry and belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church, but there were also some Germans, who often happened to be Lutherans. Afrikaans, previously regarded as a low-level Dutch patois, replaced Dutch as an official language of the Union. The establishment of the staging post by the Dutch East India Company at the Cape in 1652 soon brought the Khoikhoi into conflict with Dutch settlers over land ownership. Likewise the Indian element (led by Mahatma Gandhi) generally supported the war effort. The official statistics of blacks killed in action are inaccurate. While European colonialism was first kicked off by Portugal, the Dutch were one of the next major powers to get into the game.  The Boer republics of Transvaal and the Orange Free State also vied for ownership of the land, but Britain, being the preeminent force in the region, won control over the disputed territory. After an unsuccessful appeal for aid from the British Empire, Moshoeshoe signed the 1866 treaty of Thaba Bosiu, with the Basotho ceding substantial territory to the Orange Free State. As British and Boer settlers started establishing permanent farms after trekking across the country in search of prime agricultural land, they encountered resistance from the local Bantu people who had originally migrated southwards from central Africa hundreds of years earlier. Sotho-speakers know this period as the difaqane ("forced migration"); Zulu-speakers call it the mfecane ("crushing"). White people, who constituted 20 percent of the population, held 90 percent of the land. The Suez Canal did not exist at that time so the only way to India by ship was around the Cape. Although the British captured the colony in the late 18th century, the Dutch legacy lived on. However, an ill-informed British attempt to force the states of southern Africa into a British federation led to inter-ethnic tensions and the First Boer War.  The Boers accepted British annexation in 1844.  In terms of the peace agreement known as the Treaty of Vereeniging, the Boer republics acknowledged British sovereignty, while the British in turn committed themselves to reconstruction of the areas under their control. The consequent frontier wars, known as the Xhosa Wars, were unofficially referred to by the British colonial authorities as the "Kaffir" wars. During the years immediately following the Anglo-Boer wars, Britain set about unifying the four colonies including the former Boer republics into a single self-governed country called the Union of South Africa. Leaders of the Communist Party of South Africa were mostly white.  By mid-1987 the Human Rights Commission knew of at least 140 political assassinations in the country, while about 200 people died at the hands of South African agents in neighbouring states. 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"Untold History with a Historiography: A Review of Scholarship on Afrikaner Women in South African History.". By 1952, the brief flame of mass-based white radicalism was extinguished, when the Torch Commando disbanded due to government legislation under the Suppression of Communism Act, 1950. , Other members of the Ndebele ethnic language group in different areas of the region similarly came into conflict with the Voortrekkers, notably in the area that would later become the Northern Transvaal. In 1872, after a long political struggle, it attained responsible government with a locally accountable executive and Prime Minister. Afrikaans holds status as an official language of South Africa today, and is actively spoken by around 13% of the population. The Dutch were amongst the first and most prodigious of the European colonial powers. , In the mid-1980s, police and army death squads conducted state-sponsored assassinations of dissidents and activists. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. APLA denied the attacks were racist in character, claiming that the attacks were directed against the apartheid government as all whites, according to the PAC, were complicit in the policy of apartheid. , Nearly 250,000 South Africans served in the South African military units supporting the Allies during World War I. An estimated five thousand Zulu warriors were involved. South Africa's top-secret Special Signals Service played a significant role in the early development and deployment of radio detection and ranging (radar) technology used in protecting the vital coastal shipping route around southern Africa. why did the dutch colonized south africa ; Blog. The British elements strongly supported the war, and formed by far the largest military component. 0 0. In 1566, a Protestant Dutch revolt broke out against rule by Roman Catholic Spain, sparking the Eighty Years' War. As Cape Prime Minister, Rhodes curtailed the multi-racial franchise, and his expansionist policies set the stage for the Second Boer War. Why did they call it the Dutch Gold Coast? After the French Revolution, France occupied the Netherlands. The United Nations Security Council on 6 May 1978 condemned South Africa for the attack. , Both South Africa and Cuba claimed victory at the decisive battle of Cuito Cuanavale, which have been described as "the fiercest in Africa since World War II". , The early-1940s saw the pro-Nazi Ossewa Brandwag (OB) movement become half-a-million strong, including future prime minister John Vorster and Hendrik van den Bergh, the future head of police intelligence.  The name Orange Free State was again changed to the Orange River Colony, created by Britain after the latter occupied it in 1900 and then annexed it in 1902 during the Second Boer War.  In the battles that followed, the Orange Free State tried unsuccessfully to capture Moshoeshoe's mountain stronghold at Thaba Bosiu, while the Sotho conducted raids in Free State territories. Sekhukhune, members of his family and some Bapedi generals were subsequently imprisoned in Pretoria for two years, with Sekhukhuneland becoming part of the Transvaal Republic. It authorised the forced evictions of thousands of African people from urban centres in South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia) to what became described colloquially as "Bantustans" or the "original homes", as they were officially referred to, of the black tribes of South Africa. The General Assembly had already suspended South Africa from the UN organisation on 12 November 1974. Long-standing Boer resentment turned into full-blown rebellion in the Transvaal and the first Anglo-Boer War, also known as the Boer Insurrection, broke out in 1880. By that time, more than 2,000,000 children were orphaned due to the epidemic. In order to prevent UNITA's collapse and cement the rule of a friendly government, South Africa intervened on 23 October, sending between 1,500 and 2,000 troops from Namibia into southern Angola in order to fight the MPLA. They settled along the Gold Coast, today around Ghana, and established major slave trade networks there. This position was rejected by many rural Afrikaners who supported the Maritz Rebellion. These refugees and asylum seekers originated mainly from Zimbabwe, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia.. , During the final campaign, Sekukuni (also spelled Sekhukhune) and members of his entourage took refuge in a mountain cave where he was cut off from food and water. 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